Avalanche safety offers lessons to prevent tailings dam failures
November 14, 2019
November 14, 2019
Tailings safety can be improved by learning from other disciplines and by acknowledging human factors
Avalanche safety may sound like it has nothing to do with mine waste, yet it is a discipline where the impact of human factors on failures have been researched, discussed and published—and so offers an opportunity to learn! Year in, year out, experienced and qualified groups succumb to avalanche hazards, despite advances in equipment and technology and, sometimes tragically, these groups learn lessons the hard way. What leads to the decisions these groups make, that ultimately turn out to be poor decisions? Can we avoid making the same mistake in tailings and waste management, when it comes to making risk-based decisions, by paying attention to human factors or the way we assess evidence and make risk-based decisions?
After the death of an expert friend in an avalanche incident, a researcher named McCammon investigated over 715 incidents—his research on human factors changed the way avalanche workers think about avalanche incidents. It provided insight into the key question ‘how do people come to believe that a slope is safe, even when they are faced with likely evidence that it isn’t?’
McCammon introduced the concept of heuristic traps. Heuristics are simple, efficient rules, learned or instilled by evolutionary processes, that explain how people make decisions, come to judgements, and solve problems typically when facing complex problems or incomplete information. These rules work well under most circumstances, but can lead to errors or biases, especially in unpredictable, high-risk environments. So, heuristic traps are mental shortcuts that can result in common decision-making flaws. Like avalanche terrain, tailings operations can also be poor feedback environments, as there is no immediate feedback on the decision-making process. This means we are tempted to mistake good luck for good decision making. Some heuristic traps, which are relevant for tailings safety are:
Avalanche research has shown that people do not always make the right decisions, based on human factors. As engineers are human too, acknowledging human factors and implementing these ideas may improve tailings safety:
At Stantec, we understand that human factors can influence tailings safety and we build teams, systems and expertise that acknowledge this; this allows us to balance tailings risk and provide solutions that create thoughtful and effective governance.
Lucy Philip authored a paper on ‘Human Factors: Can we learn from avalanche incidents and apply the findings to tailings and mine waste?’ that was presented at Tailings and Mine Waste 2019 in Vancouver.